Tyskfödd anarkist och fackföreningsaktivist. Född runt 1860 i Bremen. Emigrerade till USA 173. Bodde från 1880 i Chicago där han arbetade som cooper. Var med och producerade den anarkistiska Arbeiter Zeitung.
När han efter dödsdomen talade vid domstolen sa han bland annat:
"I was tried here in this room for murder and I was convicted of Anarchy. I protest against being sentenced to death, because I have not been found guilty of murder. I have been tried for murder, but I have been convicted because I am an Anarchist. If the ruling classes think that by hanging us, hanging a few Anarchists, they can crush out Anarchy, they will be badly mistaken, because the Anarchist loves his principles more than his life. An Anarchist is always ready to die for his principles."